Mobile Network or cellular network is a network that works by connecting nodes wirelessly. In Simple words, your smartphone is connected to a cellular network tower, which is one node, and that tower is connected to another tower and that they are connected to a data center so this is how a mobile network work. There 4 types of networks available to the world now.
2G was introduced in 1992. 2G basically refers to the 2nd Generation mobile network. This is the first network to use digital signal instead of analog and with 2G users can easily use voice call and SMS services. 2G network was limited to speed and was very slow with respect to 3G and 4G. 2G has maximum data speeds of up to 64 kbps and It used a bandwidth of 30 to 200 kHz.
3G basically refers to the 3rd Generation mobile network and 3G utilizes Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) as its core network architecture. 3G network combines aspects of the 2G network. 3G Network uses packet switching, the original technology was improved to allow speeds up to 14 Mbps. 3G has maximum data speeds of up to 2mbps and can send and received large files in emails.
4G basically refers to the 4thd Generation mobile network. The main difference between 3G and 4G is the data rate. There is also a huge difference between 3G and 4G technology. The key technologies that have made 4G possible are MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) and OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). The most important 4G standards are WiMAX and LTE. While 4G LTE is a major improvement over 3G speeds, it is technically not 4G. What is the difference between 4G and LTE?
Even after it was widely available, many networks were not up to the required speed of 4G. 4G LTE is a “fourth-generation long-term evolution”, capable of delivering a very fast and secure internet connection. Basically, 4G is the predetermined standard for mobile network connections. 4G LTE is the term given to the path which has to be followed to achieve those predefined standards. Some of the features of 4G LTE are:
- Support interactive multimedia, voice, and video.
- High speed, high capacity, and low cost per bit (Speeds of up to 20 Mbps or more.)
- Global and scalable mobile networks.
- Ad hoc and multi-hop networks.
- 5G networks operate on rarely used radio millimeter bands in the 30 GHz to 300 GHz range. Testing of the 5G range in mmWave has produced results approximately 500 meters from the tower. Using small cells, the deployment of 5G with millimeter wave-based carriers can improve the overall coverage area. Combined with beamforming, small cells can deliver extremely fast coverage with low latency.
- Low latency is one of 5G’s most important features. 5G uses a scalable orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) framework. 5G benefits greatly from this and can have latency as low as one millisecond with realistic estimates to be around 1 – 10 seconds. 5G is estimated to be 60 to 120 times faster than the average 4G latency.
- Active antenna 5G encapsulated with 5G massive MIMO is used for providing better connections and enhanced user experience. Big 5G array antennas are deployed to gain additional beamforming information and knock out propagation challenges that are experienced at mmWave frequency ranges.
- Further, 5G networks clubbed with network slicing architecture enable telecom operators to offer on-demand tailored connectivity to their users that are adhered to Service Level Agreement (SLA). Such customized network capabilities comprise latency, data speed, latency, reliability, quality, services, and security.